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I want to take Hélène Lagonelle with me to where every evening, my eyes shut, I have imparted to me the pleasure that makes you cry out.

I want it to happen in my presence, I want her to do it as I wish, I want her to give herself where I give myself. A pleasure unto death. The light of the sun blurred and annihilated all color. But the nights, I remember them. The blue was more distant than the sky, beyond all depths, covering the bounds of the world.

The sky, for me, was the stretch of pure brilliance crossing the blue, that cold coalescence beyond all color. Sometimes, it was in Vinh Long, when my mother was sad she'd order the gig and we'd drive out into the country to see the nighta s it was in the dry season.

I had that good fortune- those nights, that mother. The light fell from the sky in cataracts of pure transparency, in torrents of silence and immobility. The air was blue, you could hold it in your hand. The sky was the continual throbbing of the brilliance of the light. The night lit up everything, all the country on either bank of the river as far as the eye could reach. Every night was different, each one had a name as long as it lasted. Their sound was that of the dogs, the country dogs baying at mystery.

They answered on another from village to village, until the time and space of the night were utterly consumed. That I can see the same sadness in photos of myself when I was small. It's got older still, or course, but less, comparatively, than it would otherwise have done.

It's scored with deep, dry wrinkles, the skin is cracked. But my face hasn't collapsed, as some with fine feature have done. It's kept the same contours, but its substance has been laid waste. I have a face laid waste. Does not exist. No path, no line. Either it was in the woman who aroused it or it didn't exist.

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Either it was there at first glance or else it had never been. Any objects reachable from live GC roots are marked as well as the live GC roots themselves. Any unmarked objects that remain are garbage.

The sweep phase of garbage collection may sweep away such garbage objects from the heap not every garbage collection necessarily sweeps away all garbage. In the first picture at the top of this article, GarbageObject1 is not reachable from any of the GC roots and thus it may be swept away by the next garbage collection. Note that some garbage collectors are very sophisticated and mark and sweep subset s of the heap at any one time to reduce worst-case garbage collection pause times.

There are different types of reachability : let's start with the simplest one — strongly reachable — which we have been implicitly discussing above:. An object is strongly reachable if it can be reached by some thread without traversing any reference objects. A newly-created object is strongly reachable by the thread that created it. In other words, if none of the objects on the path between a thread GC root and the target object are an instance of a subclass of java.

Referencethen an object is strongly reachable. Now let's discuss the other types of reachability. Why might java. Reference be useful? The simplest example is a java. SoftReferences are great for transient caches because they may be used to keep an object around "softly" — if the JVM really needs the space and an object is only softly reachable, then the JVM may consider it as garbage.

For example, let's extend our Person class above to have a SoftReference to a byte array that represents the person's profile picture:. The above design caches the database lookup of a person's profile picture into a SoftReference field when getProfilePicture is called. If there is a subsequent call to getProfilePicture for this instance of Person, and if the Java heap is not under memory pressure, then the database lookup is avoided.

At any point in time, the garbage collector may decide to clear the byte array within the SoftReference and then the code will re-do the database lookup. Here's how the object graph might look like if the SoftReference is set:. Another type of java. Reference is a java. PhantomReferences are just a more flexible form of Java finalization.

Java finalization and PhantomReferences may be used to perform processing of an object after it is essentially garbage but before it has been fully collected by the garbage collector. In general, finalization and PhantomReferences are discouraged because the processing of such objects is generally non-deterministic which may lead to native memory leaks, native OOMs, and garbage collection pause time variability especially with generational garbage collectors, which most modern garbage collectors are, because such objects may build up in the older generations and garbage collection may not process them for a long time.

The final type of java. WeakReferences are just like SoftReferences, except that WeakReferences are collected eagerly, whereas SoftReferences are not collected eagerly as long as there is plenty of free Java heap. Now that we have a clear picture of reachability and GC roots, we can use MAT to analyze a heapdump and find the paths to GC roots that are keeping suspect objects alive.

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One of the most common types of GC roots is a thread stack frame local, so although you may find your suspect rooted in such a GC root, a PHD won't tell you which thread that root is on, so it may be difficult to understand what that thread was doing.

Therefore, in general, and particularly for OOMs, system dumps are preferred over PHDs particularly because they have more accurate GC roots note that system dumps, like HPROF dumps, include all Java memory content such as String and primitive values, so they should be treated sensitively.

In general, we are not interested in phantom, weak, or soft reference paths to suspect objects, so this option excludes such paths. Here is an example result:.